New moldavites from SW Poland
Brachaniec T., Szopa K., Karwowski Ł.
Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol. 66 (216), No. 1, pp. 99 – 105.

Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia

Geochemical markers of soil anthropogenic contaminants in polar scientific stations nearby (Antarctica, King George Island),
Wojciech Prus, Fabiańska, M.J., Radosław Łabno, 2015.
Science of the Total Environment,  518–519, 266-279.


The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific stations on King George Island (Antarctica) was investigated. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was applied to find composition of dichloromethane extracts of soil and terrestrial sediments. The presence of geochemical markers, such as n-alkanes, steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and alkyl PAHs, their distribution types, and values of their ratios indicates the predominating source of organic fossil fuels and products of their refining rather than from the natural Antarctic environment. Fossil fuel-originated compounds well survived in conditions of Antarctic climate over long times thus enabling to characterize geochemical features of source fossil fuel identified as petroleumexpelled fromkerogen II of algal/bacterial origins deposited in sub-oxic conditions and being in the middle of catagenesis. Both microbial activity andwater leaching play an important role in degradation of terrestrial oil spills in the Antarctica climate, and petroleum alteration occurs lowly over long periods of time. synthetic anthropogenic compounds found in terrestrial Antarctica sediments included diisopropylnaphthalenes, products of their sulfonates degradation in paper combustion, and organophosporus compounds used as retardants and plasticizers.


Coal-related sources of organic contamination in sediments and water from the Bierawka River (Poland).
Nádudvari Á.,  Fabiańska M. J., 2015.
International Journal of Coal Geology 152, 94-109.


River sediments mixed with coaly material occur all along the length of the Bierawka River (Poland). To identify the origin of the coal in the sediment, the coaly material was investigated by reflected light microscopy and Rock Eval Pyrolysis, and solvent extracts by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Organic compounds dissolved in water were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by GC–MS. The results point to a kerogen III source. Petrographic analyses confirm abundant coal-, charred- and coked particles in the sediments. Vitrinite reflectance varied between 0.66–0.80 Rr% without any large spatial variation. The coaly particles have different sources. Generally, the primary origin of coal particles is from coal processing and the dumping the ash with unburned coal particles from a glass factory near the river source. Later, this material was redeposited along the entire river course. In addition, hard coal processing (crushing–washing) features are visible in larger coal pieces. A second source of coaly organic matter is a coal waste dump at Szczygłowice where intensive erosion of steep slopes has delivered copious amounts of organic matter into the river. The mixing of this organic matter with that from the glass factory is clearly identified on a ternary diagram. PAH distributions also  how differences between sections. The coal particle input from the waste dump increased the relative content of naphthalene relative content downstream. As in the coal waste, 4–5 ring PAHs predominate in the sediments. The pyrogenic origin of PAHs and aromatic compounds such as methylbiphenyls and dibenzofurane in the sediment is indicated by diagnostic PAH ratios; burned particles were identified petrographically. The river water contains only 2–3 ring PAHs, possibly of industrial origin or leached from coal particles in the river sediments.


Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland.
Ciesielczuk, J., Czylok, A., Fabiańska, M.J., Misz-Kennan, M., 2015.
Environ. & Socio.-econ. Stud. 3, 1 10.


Coal waste dumps superstructuring the former rubbish dump frequently undergo processes of selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed within the wastes. It generates special conditions for plants growing, what was investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The most frequent set of plants observed on the ignited places are: Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisja vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexis, Atriplex nitens, Solanum nigrum. It is also possible to enter some new, rare species as Portulaca oleracea which was noticed in 2011. Most of them reveal tendency to form specimens of huge size, what is called gigantism. It is possible mainly because of plentiful CO2 and nitrates emission. Additionally, plants growing there are not attacked by insect pests.

Overheating of the ground liquidates the natural seeds bank and after soil cooling these places are sown by species which give seeds at the moment. It is called as “the rule of the first colonizator”. Places on the dumps which are heated allow for plant vegetation even in the middle of the winter time. As the vegetation cycle is put out of adjustment, we have observed seedlings, blooming and fructified plants at the same time.

Thermal transformations of the waste rocks at the Starzykowiec coal waste dump, Poland. W: Stracher G.B., Sokol E.V., Prakash A. (eds.): Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3 – Case Studies,
Misz-Kennan M., Fabiańska M., Ciesielczuk J. 2015.
Elsevier, 387-430.

Zbadano współzależności pomiędzy składem macerałowym i geochemią organiczną opadów powęglowych poddanych procesowi spontanicznego samozagrzewania. Stwierdzono obecność związków pirolitycznych powstałych w warunkach beztlenowego zagrzewania lub w znacznym niedoborze tlenu oraz odpadów wypalonych zawierających migracyjny bitumin. Postawiono tezę o mobilności składników organicznych uwolnionych w wyniku samozagrzewania.


Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter,
Fabiańska, M.J., Kozielska B., Konieczyński J., 2016.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 6999-7011.


Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted.


The impact of water-washing, biodegradation and self-heating processes on coal waste dumps in the Rybnik Industrial Region (Poland).
Nádudvari Á.,  Fabiańska M. J., 2016.
International Journal of Coal Geology, 154–155, 286-299.


Water-washing, biodegradation and self-heating impacts on coal waste features were investigated on four sample sets: fresh coal wastes (sampled less than one week after dumping), samples from gullies in coal-waste dumps, self-heated material and Bierawka river sediment mixed with coal/coal-waste particles. Rock Eval pyrolysis, petrography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) were applied to assess degree of organic-matter alteration. It was found that water-washing and self-heating did not influence the vitrinite reflectance. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results better reflected the secondary changes in organic matter, namely, S2-TOC and HI-Tmax allowed their extent to be defined. Changes were noted in other geochemical e.g., n-alkane parameters Σ2/Σ1 increased and n-C23/n-C31 decreased whereas, Pr/Ph, Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios increased slightly compared to fresh coal waste. The Hunt diagram allows discrimination between water-washed- and biodegraded samples from unaltered, fresh coal waste. Similarly, changes in distributions of phenols, alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reflect degree of water-washing. Self-heating strongly affects distributions of some biomarkers such as n-alkanes, Pr, and Ph, whereas pentacyclic triterpane distributions were generally well preserved. Phenols occur in greatest amount in self-heated wastes, probably released from heated vitrinite. Domination of 2–3 ring PAH rings indicated the bitumen precipitation zone and well-differentiated burnt-out wastes. Recent organic-matter input is seen in increased CPI (Carbon Preference Index) values.


The fluorescence decay times and quantum efficiencies of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides.
Mazurak Z., Wanic A., Karolczak J., Czaja M.
Journal of Luminescence, vol. 158, pp. 103-109 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2014.09.039


Presented herein are the luminescence properties of several 1,4,5,8- polinahthalisoimides. The luminescence decay curves after deconvolution exhibit three decay times: τ1, τ2, and τ3.The luminescence lifetimes change along with the growth of excitation energy, as well as the contribution of each luminescence decay mechanism (A1, A2, and A3). The manner of change is distinct for one sample, namely, the pure E-isomer, in comparison to the others. The radiative deexcitation coupled with radiationless vibrational energy transfer to other luminescence centers, mainly other isomer units, is discussed as a possible deexcitation mechanism of fluorescence. The Kasha-Vavilov empirical rule is not fulfilled for the studied samples, as the luminescence quantum efficiency (ΦF) distinctly depends on the excitation wavelength (λexc). The quantum yield of one sample (about 63% of Z-isomer) is quite high, at 1%.
The effect of gamma irradiation on the fluorescence properties of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides

Mazurak Z., Wanic A.,(…) Kądziołka-Gaweł M., Czaja M. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 110, pp. 67-71     http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.01.023


The subject of our investigation was the intensity of the fluorescence of 1,4,5,8-naphtalisoimides subjected to gamma radiation (the absorbed doses were 242. Gy, 1. kGy and 2.242. kGy). Dynamic changes of fluorescence intensity have been observed; the greatest relative increase of fluorescence intensity (and simultaneously, the least durable increase) occurs as a result of structural isomerisation.


Preservation of coal-waste geochemical markers in vegetation andsoil on self-heating coal-waste dumps in Silesia, Poland.
Fabiańska M.J., Ciesielczuk J., Misz-Kennan M., Łukasz Kruszewski Ł., Kowalski A. (2016),
Chemie der Erde. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2016.04.001


Occurrence and distributions of geochemical markers on vegetation and in soils covering two self-heating coal waste dumps were investigated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and compared with those of bitumen expelled on the coal waste dump surface. Presence of biomarkers, alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and such polar compounds as phenols indicate that components of self-heating coal wastes indeed migrate to soils and plants surface and their characteristic fingerprints can be applied in passive monitoring to investigate migration of contaminants from self-heating coal wastes. Moreover, results allow to discriminate between the Upper- and Lower Silesian coal basins, notwithstanding value shifts caused by heating. Mechanisms enabling the migration of geochemical compounds into soils include mixing with weathered coal-waste material, transportin gases emitted due to self-heating and, indirectly, by deposition of biomass containing geochemical substances. Transport in gases involves mostly lighter compounds such as phenols, methylnaphthalenes, methylbiphenyls, etc. Distributions and values of geochemical ratios are related to differences in their boiling temperatures in the case of lighter compounds but preserve geochemical features in the case of heavier compounds such as pentacyclic trierpanes.

Composition and element mobilization in pyrometallurgical slag from the Orzeł Biały smelting plant in the Bytom – Piekary Śląskie area, Poland.
R.Warchulski, A. Gawęda, M. Kądziołka-Gaweł, K. Szopa
Miner Mag.  DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2015.079.2.21.


Wastes accumulated at Piekary Śląskie, Poland, are the result of 150-years of continuous working of the Orzeł Biały smelting plant. Slags are composed of: oxides (spinel, hematite, zincite); silicates and aluminosilicates (olivine, monticellite – kirschteinite, titanite, merwinite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspars: plagioclases and plumbean K-feldspar, nepheline, kalsilite, leucite); sulphides (pyrrhotite, rudashevskyite, galena), metallic phases (pure iron and iron-arsenic mixture) and secondary phases (gypsum, rapidcreekite, apatite). Interstices between the crystalline phases are filled by glass, concentrating toxic and potentially harmful elements, e.g. up to 53.22 wt.% PbO. The sequence of crystallization of primary phases depended on the local variability of oxygen fugacity and degree of calcination, while the texture type resulted from the time of cooling and partial pressure of volatiles. Suggested crystallization temperatures are in the range of 1200-1500o C. Bulk chemical analyses show that the slags are composed mainly of SiO2 , Al2O3 , Fe2O3, MgO and CaO. Among potentially harmful elements, Zn is most common, reaching up to 5.93 wt.%, Pb is present in concentrations up to 3.9 wt.% and As in weathered samples exceeds 1wt.%. Leaching tests of these elements confirms As mobility – Zn and Pb are preferably leached from fresh slags, whilst As is present in higher amounts in leachate from weathered slag samples. The documented amounts of As, Zn, Pb and their mobility in slags result in environmental risk, as this material is currently widely used for commercial purposes.

Zn-Pb slag crystallization: evaluating temperature conditions on the basis of geothermometry
European Journal of Mineralogy. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2015/0027-2496


Temperature estimates are key to understanding the crystallization of pyrometallurgical slags. To date, temperature approximations have been based mainly on phase diagrams; these give approximate data only. Geothermometers (e.g., phase – whole-rock composition) applied in this study give much more accurate, focused results that are in agreement with historical data. Pyrometallurgical slags related to zinc extraction in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, date back to the 19th century. Thus, there is a great variety of slag textures and compositions reflecting changes in technological processes ranging from the primitive “Silesian method” to more advanced techniques including calcination and precise dosages of coal/coke and add-ons. Slag samples were collected at three localities with known smelting histories: Piekary Śląskie, Katowice and Ruda Śląska. The analysed material is composed of high-temperature phases among which oxides, silicates and aluminosilicates dominate. The chemical composition of the slags is complex, with up to nine major oxide components, namely, SiO2, Al2O3, FeOt, ZnO, PbO, MnO, MgO, CaO and K2O. The three geothermometers applied, i.e., olivine – WR (whole rock), pyroxene – WR and feldspar – WR, yielded temperatures ranging from 987 to 1314°C. Phase diagrams on the other hand, due to the complex chemical compositions involved, were useful for general determinations only; they gave overestimated temperatures in the range 1100–1800°C. Evaluating temperature conditions using geothermometry demonstrated the usefulness of different technological processes at the various sites sampled.

Mineralogy and origin of coarse-grained segregations in the pyrometallurgical Zn-Pb slags from Katowice-Wełnowiec (Poland)
Warchulski, A. Gawęda, J. Janeczek, M. Kądziołka-Gaweł
Mineralogy and Petrology, DOI 10.1007/s00710-016-0439-1


The unique among pyrometallurgical slags, coarse grained (up to 2.5 cm) segregations (up to 40 cm long) rimmed by aplitic border zones occur within holocrystalline historical Zn-smelting slag in Katowice, S Poland. Slag surrounding the segregations consists of olivine, spinel series, melilite,

clinopyroxene, leucite, nepheline and sulphides. Ca-olivines, kalsilite and mica compositionally similar to oxykinoshitalite occur in border zones in addition to olivine, spinel series and melilite. Miarolitic and massive pegmatite-like segregations are built of subhedral crystals of melilite, leucite, spinel series, clinopyroxene and hematite. Melilite, clinopyroxenes and spinels in the segregations are enriched in Zn relatively to original slag and to fine-grained border zones. The segregations originated as a result of crystallization from residual melt rich in volatiles (presumably CO2). The volatile rich

melt was separated during fractional crystallization of molten slag under the cover of the overlying hot (ca.1250 °C) vesicular slag, preventing the escape of volatiles. That unique slag system is analogous to natural magmatic systems.
(praca realizowana w ramach grantu NCN 2014/13/B/ST10/02403 kierowanego przez Aleksandrę Gawęda)

Episodic construction of the Tatra granitoid intrusion (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia): consequences for the geodynamics of Variscan collision and Rheic Ocean closure.
Aleksandra Gawęda, Jolanta Burda, Urs Klötzli, Jan Golonka, Krzysztof Szopa
Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch); DOI 10.1007/s00531-015-1239-2.


The Tatra granitoid pluton (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia) is an example of composite polygenetic intrusion, comprising many magmatic pulses varying compositionally from diorite to granite. The U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon dating of successive magma batches indicate the presence of magmatic episodes at 370-368 Ma, 365 Ma, 360 Ma, 355 Ma and 350-340 Ma, all together covering a time span of 30 Ma of magmatic activity. The partial resorption and recycling of former granitoid material (“petrological cannibalism”) was a result of the incremental growth of the pluton and temperature in the range of 750-850ºC. The long-lasting granitoid magmatism was connected to the prolonged subduction of oceanic crust and collision of the Proto-Carpathian terrane with a volcanic arc and finally with Laurussia, closing the Rheic Ocean. The differences in granitoid composition are the results of different depths of crustal melting. More felsic magmas were generated in the outer zone of the volcanic arc, while more mafic magmas were formed in the inner part of the supra-subduction zone. The source rocks of the granitoid magmas covered the compositional range of metapelite-amphibolite and were both from both lower and upper crust.

The presence of the inherited zircon cores suggests that the collision and granitoid magmatism involved crust of Cadomian consolidation age (c. 530 Ma and 518  Ma) forming the Proto-Carpathian Terrane, crust of Avalonian affinity (462 Ma, 426 Ma) and melted metasedimentary rocks of volcanic arc provenance.

(praca realizowana w ramach grantu NCN 2012/07/B/ST10/04366, kierowanego przez Aleksandrę Gawęda)

The role of authigenic sulfides in immobilization of potentially toxic metals in the Bagno Bory wetland, southern Poland
Smieja-Król, J. Janeczek, A. Bauerek, I.H. Thorseth
Environ Sci Pollut Res (2015) DOI 10.1007/s11356-015-4728-8

Udokumentowano wytrącenia biogenicznych siarczków metali w torfowisku Bory w Sosnowcu. W ok. 30. centymetrowej warstwie torfu zalegającej na dnie wyrobiska piasku występowały mikronowej wielkości (0,3-1m) kuliste agregaty ZnS, framboidalny piryt oraz wytrącenia galeny o zróżnicowanym kształcie i rozmiarach (0,1-3m). Część skupień galeny występowała wewnątrz strzępków grzybni, wszystkie siarczki były natomiast pokryte lub przytwierdzone do podłoża bakteryjnym biofilmem. Warstwa biofilmu chroniła siarczki przed wypłukaniem, np. w czasie intensywnych deszczów, ale również zapobiegała ich utlenianiu.


Peatland Microbial Communities as Indicators of the Extreme Atmospheric Dust Deposition
Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, B. Smieja-Król, T. M. Ostrovnaya, M. Frontasyeva, A. Siemińska, M. Lamentowicz
Water Air Soil Pollut (2015) DOI 10.1007/s11270-015-2338-1

W torfowisku w Górach Izerskich, zlokalizowanym w granicach rezerwatu „Torfowiska Doliny Izery”, a które jednocześnie znajduje się w obrębie tzw. Czarnego Trójkąta – najbardziej zanieczyszczonego regionu w Europie Środkowej, depozycja pyłów z elektrowni węgla brunatnego przyczyniła się do zmian ilościowych i gatunkowych ameb skorupkowych. Kuliste glinokrzemiany, które są pospolitym składnikiem popiołów lotnych stanowiły podstawowy składnik budulcowy skorupek ameb z gatunków Difflugia sp. i Phryganella sp. Z kolei zanik ameb o skorupkach krzemionkowych można wiązać z toksycznym działaniem glinu, który przy bardzo dużych koncentracjach tego pierwiastka w pyle opadowym i kwaśnym odczynie torfowiska uwalniał się do wody porowej torfowiska.

An effect of igneous intrusion on the structure, texture and microtexture of coal from the Sośnica coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland.
Ł. Smędowski, S.Duber, A.Matuszewska,
Geological Quarterly, 59 (3), 2015 doi: 10.7306/gq.1226

Próbki węgla kamiennego z kopalni Sośnica  (GZW) zmetamorfizowane termicznie w złożu i  termolizowane w laboratorium analizowano metodami : mikroskopii optycznej , TEM (transmisyjna mikroskopia elektronowa) i spektroskopii ramanowskiej. Porównano zmiany struktury zachodzące w termicznych procesach naturalnych i laboratoryjnych. Zmiany te wykazują podobne ogólne trendy zmian, jednak  procesy złożowe charakteryzują się znacznie bardziej skomplikowanym przebiegiem z uwagi na liczne czynniki o charakterze chemicznym  i  termodynamicznym uwarunkowanym geologiczną historią złoża. Charakterystyka próbek  węgla badanych w warunkach laboratoryjnych może więc być  punktem odniesienia do prób oceny stopnia działania zróżnicowanych czynników  złożowych pozatemperaturowych.


Evaluation of the structure of bituminous coal from Sośnica mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) using reflectance indicating surface (RIS) parameters
A.Matuszewska, S. Pusz, S. Duber,
Intern. J. Coal Geol.152, 177-188 ,2015 doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2015.11.002

Zbadano efekty działania intruzji magmowej na właściwości optyczne (refleksyjność, anizotropia, charakter optyczny) witrynitu w niskouwęglonych węglach z kop. Sośnica (GZW) i porównano te rezultaty z  działanie m czynnika temperatury w warunkach laboratoryjnych. Wyznaczone zmiany przedstawiono w funkcji odległości od intruzji , zestawiając je ze zmianami w funkcji temperatuty dla węgli ogrzewanych laboratoryjnie. Potwierdzono, iż czynnik termiczny jest odpowiedzialny za reorganizację płaszczyzn węglowych, co jest powodem wzrostu refleksyjności. Ogrzewanie prowadzi ponadto do destrukcji  szkieletu struktury węgla (grupy alifatyczne i heteroatomowe) . Jeśli przemianom termicznym towarzyszy ciśnienie zewnętrzne (jak w intruzywnych procesach naturalnych), zmiany struktury  przejawiają się w dużo wyższym stopniu anizotropii struktury węgla. W badaniach tych zastosowano tzw.  transformację  Kilby`ego dla wyznaczenia refleksyjności i parametrów optycznych węgla, dla optymalizacji procesu pomiarowego i pogłębionej interpretacji wyników.


Artykuły popularno- naukowe  nt. żywic kopalnych w branżowym czasopiśmie  bursztynników:
Matuszewska A., 2014,  Różnorodność świata żywic naturalnych. I. Definicje i wstępna klasyfikacja, Gems &Jewelry, Magazyn Branży Gemmologicznej i Jubilerskiej, s. 48-51
Matuszewska A., 2015, Różnorodność świata żywic naturalnych. II. Zarys historii żywic od kopalnych do współczesnych, Gems&Jewelry, Magazyn Branży Gemmologicznej i Jubilerskiej, s.28-33
Matuszewska A.,  2015, Lotne składniki żywic naturalnych, czyli – dlaczego pachnie las a żywica przeobraża się w bursztyn? , Gems&Jewelry, Magazyn  Branży Gemmologicznej i Jubilerskiej, s. 51-60
Matuszewska A., 2016, Różnorodność świata żywic naturalnych. IV.Znaczenie bursztynu dla środowiska przyrodniczego i jego przyczynek do rozwoju kultury materialnej i duchowej w Europie, Gems&Jewelry, Magazyn  Branży Gemmologicznej i Jubilerskiej, marzec, 2016 ISSN2391-419X, s.62-71

Barium concentration in cast roe deer antlers related to air pollution caused by burning of barium-enriched coals in southern Poland.
Jabłońska, M. Kramarczyk, B. Smieja-Król, J. Janeczek
Environ Sci Pollut Res. DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-6154-y.

Stwierdzono podwyższoną koncentrację Ba (do 351 ppm) w porożach jeleni z okolic Chrzanowa i Żywca, najprawdopodobniej jako skutek inhalacji nanokryształów barytu lub spożycia bogatego w ten minerał pyłu osiadłego na roślinach. Baryt ma związek ze spalaniem węgla kamiennego. Artykuł jest rezultatem pracy magisterskiej M. Kramarczyka.


Abstract: Concentrations of Ba, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in freshly cast antlers from male roe deer of different ages (2 to 4 years old and older than 4 years) collected in Balin near Chrzanów and in the vicinity of Żywiec, S Poland. Barium content ranged from 124 to 196 ppm (mean 165 ppm) in the Balin 12 samples and from 207 to 351 ppm (mean 287 ppm) in 3 antlers from Żywiec. The concentration of Ba was comparable to that of Zn (134–275 ppm, mean 169 ppm). Elevated concentrations of Ba in antlers most probably originated from direct uptake of airborne barite nanocrystals through the respiratory system and/or by digestion of barite-rich dust particles deposited on plants. Burning of Ba-enriched coals is regarded as the principal source of Ba in the investigated areas inhabited by roe deer. Increased concentrations of Ba in antlers from the Żywiec area compared to Balin reflect particularly high air pollution caused by coal-burning mostly for domestic purposes combined with an unfavorable topography that impedes efficient air circulation.